Nano-Materials

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Nanomaterials: It's a Small, Small World


Over the past decade, nanomaterials have been the subject of enormous interest. These materials, notable for their extremely small feature size, have the potential for wide-ranging industrial, biomedical, and electronic applications. ...(more)

Nano Oxide Powders:

Item No. Product Name Purity APS Other Properties US$
OX12N-98 Nano Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Purity: < 98% APS: 50 nm Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX12N-2N5 Nano Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Purity: < 99.5% APS: 50 nm Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX12N-3N Nano Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Purity: < 99.9% APS < 30 nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 50
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX13N-2N5C1 Nano Alumina Oxide (Al2O3) Purity: 99.5% APS: 20-30nm Specific surface area (m2/g): 150
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX13N-3N5C1 Nano Alumina Oxide (Al2O3) Purity: 99.95% APS: 20 nm Specific surface area (m2/g)180
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX13N-4NC1 Nano Alumina Oxide (Al2O3) Purity: 99.99% APS: 10nm Specific surface area (m2/g)200-300
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX13N-4NC2 Nano Alumina Oxide (Al2O3) Purity: 99.99% APS: 60nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 180
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX13N-4NC3 Nano Alumina Oxide (Al2O3) Purity: 99.99% APS: 150nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 180
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX13N-4NA1 Nano Alumina Oxide (Al2O3) Purity: 99.99% APS: 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 14
Phase: 75% α
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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 OX13N-4NA2 Nano Alumina Oxide (Al2O3) Purity: 99.99% APS: > 150nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 10±5
Phase: α
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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OX14N-2N5 Nano Silicon Oxide (SiO2) Purity: > 99.5% APS: 20-30nm Color: White Ask for a Quotation
OX14N-3NSP Nano Silicon Oxide (SiOx) Purity: > 99.9% APS: 20±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 640±30nm
Color: White
Morphology: porous particle
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OX14N-3NDP Nano Silicon Oxide (SiOx) Purity: > 99.9% APS: 20±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 700±30nm
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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OX14N-3NSS Nano Silicon Oxide (SiOx) Purity: > 99.9% APS: 30±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 160±20nm
Color: White
Morphology: porous particle
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OX14N-3NDS Nano Silicon Oxide (SiOx) Purity: > 99.9% APS: 30±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 200±20nm
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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OX22N-2NC1 Nano Titanium Oxide (TiO2) Purity: 99% APS: < 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 35
Phase: Rutile
Color: White
Surface Properties: Hydrophilic
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OX22N-2NC2 Nano Titanium Oxide (TiO2)
Coated with SiO2
Purity: 96%+SiO2 APS: < 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 35
Phase: Rutile
Color: White
Surface Properties: Hydrophilic
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OX22N-2NC3 Nano Titanium Oxide (TiO2)
Coated with Al2O3, Fatty Acid Salt
Purity: 93%+Al2O3+FAS APS: < 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 35
Phase: Rutile
Color: White
Surface Properties: Hydrophobic
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OX22N-2NC4 Nano Titanium Oxide (TiO2)
Coated with Al2O3, Organosilicon
Purity: 93%+Al2O3 APS: < 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 35
Phase: Rutile
Color: White
Surface Properties: Hydrophobic
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OX22N-2NC5 Nano Titanium Oxide (TiO2)
Coated with Al2O3, SiO2
Purity: 90%+Al2O3+SiO2 APS: < 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g): > 35
Phase: Rutile
Color: White
Surface Properties: Amphimorphic
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OX22N-2NC6 Nano Titanium Oxide (TiO2) Purity: 98% APS: 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g): 30 ± 10nm
Phase: Rutile
Color: White
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OX22N-2NA Nano Titanium Oxide (TiO2) Purity: 99% APS: 5-10nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 210±10
Phase: Anatase
Color: White
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OX24N-98 Nano Chromium Oxide (Cr2O3) Purity: 98% APS: 60nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50
Color: Green
Morphology: spherical
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OX26N-98A Nano Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) Purity: 98% APS: 40nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50
Phase: alfa
Color: Red brown
Morphology: spherical
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OX26N-2N5A Nano Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) Purity: 99.5% APS: 30nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50
Phase: alfa
Color: Red Brown
Morphology: spherical
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OX26N-98 Nano Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Purity: 98% APS: 20nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50
Color: Black
Morphology: spherical
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OX26N-2N5 Nano Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Purity: 99.5% APS: 20nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50
Color: Black
Morphology: spherical
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OX27N-98 Nano Cobalt Oxide (Co3O4) Purity: 98% APS: 30nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50
Color: Black
Morphology: spherical
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OX27N-2N5 Nano Cobalt Oxide (Co3O4) Purity: 99.5% APS: 30nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50
Color: Black
Morphology: spherical
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OX28N-2N5 Nano nickel Oxide (NiO) Purity: 99.5% APS: 30nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 50
Color: Dark Grey
Morphology: spherical
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OX29N-2N5 Nano Copper Oxide (CuO) Purity: 99.5% APS: 60nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 15
Color: Black
Morphology: spherical
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OX30N-98 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 98% APS: 30nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50±10nm
Color: Cream
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX30N-2N5 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 99.5% APS: 30nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50±10nm
Color: Cream
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX30N-2N5-2 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 99.5% APS: 20±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50±10nm
Color: Cream
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX30N-3N1 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 99.9% APS: 100- 200nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 5-7
Color: White
Morphology: Irregular
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OX30N-3N2 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 99.9% APS: 30nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 50-60
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX30N-3N3 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50-60nm Specific surface area (m2/g): 50
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX30N-3NG1 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 99.5% APS: < 80 nm Specific surface area (m2/g): 30
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX30N-3NG2 Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Purity: 99.5% APS: < 50 nm Specific surface area (m2/g): 35
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX39N-4N Nano Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) Purity: 99.99% APS: 20-30 nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 25-36
Color: White
Morphology: spherical
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OX40N-3N Nano Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) Purity: 99.9% APS: 25nm±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 45
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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OX40N-3N5 Nano Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) Purity: 99.95% APS: 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) 25±10nm
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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PSZ-3YN1 Nano Yttria (3 mol%) Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Purity: 99.9% APS: 70nm Specific surface area (m2/g): 15
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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PSZ-3YN2 Nano Yttria (3 mol%) Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Purity: 99.9% APS: 25nm±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 40
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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PSZ-8YN Nano Yttria (8 mol%) Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Purity: 99.9% APS: 25nm±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 40
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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PSZ-3.5CaN Nano Calcia (8 mol%) Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Purity: 99.9% APS: 25nm±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 40
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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PSZ-3MN Nano Magnisia (8 mol%) Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Purity: 99.9% APS: 25nm±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 40
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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PSZ-13CeN Nano Ceria Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Purity: 99.9% APS: 25nm±5nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 40
Color: Light Yellow
Morphology: Spherical
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OX50N-98 Nano Tin Oxide (SnO2) Purity: 98% APS: 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 150
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX50N-2N Nano Tin Oxide (SnO2) Purity: 98% APS: 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 150
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX57N Nano Lanthanum Oxide (La2O3) Purity: 99.995% APS: 10-20nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 150
Phase: γ
Color: White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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OX58N-3N5 Nano Cerium Oxide (CeO2) Purity: 99.95% APS: 20-30 nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 50
Color: White
Morphology: Spherical
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nano-Al2O3-4N Aluminum Oxide Nanopowder (alpha)-Hydrophilic Purity: 99.99% APS: 30-50nm SSA: >15 m2/g;
Color: white;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
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nano-Al2O3-4N Aluminum Oxide Nanopowder (gamma)-Hydrophilic Nanoparticles (Al2O3) Purity: 99.99% APS: 20nm SSA: >138 m2/g;
Color: white;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
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nano-Al(OH)3-3N Aluminum hydroxide Nanopowder, Al(OH)3-Hydrophilic Purity: 99.9% APS: 100nm SSA: ~650 m2/g;
Color: white;
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nano-Bi2O3-3N Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles (Bi2O3, beta) Purity: 99.9% APS: 100-200nm SSA: 3.8 ?C 5.5 m2/g ;
Color: yellow;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 0.65 g/cm3;
True density: 8.9 g/cm3
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nano-CeO2-4N Cerium Oxide Nanopowder (CeO2) Purity: 99.99% (REO) APS: 20nm SSA: 30-50 m2/g;
Color: light yellow;
Bulk density: ~ 0.8-1.1 g/cm3;
True density: 7.132 g/cm3
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nano-Co3O4-2N5 Cobalt Oxide Nanopowder (Co3O4) Purity: >99.5% APS: 40nm SSA: 30-80 m2/g;
Color: dark brown ;
True density: 6.11 g/m3
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nano-Cr2O3-3N Chromium Oxide Nanopowder (Cr2O3) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50nm (from TEM) Morphology: nearly spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.943 g/cm3;
True density: 5.22 g/m3
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nano-CuO-3N Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO) Purity: 99.9% APS: 30-50nm SSA: 13.98 m2/g;
Color: black;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
Bulk density: 0.79 g/cm3;
True density: 6.4 g/m3
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nano-Cu2O-3N Copper(I) Oxide Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Cu2O) Purity: 99.9% APS: 40nm SSA: 52.46 m2/g;
Color: Red;
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nano-Dy2O3-3N Dysprosium Oxide Nanopowder (Dy2O3) Purity: 99.9+% (REO) APS: 40nm SSA: >25 m2/g;
Color: white ;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 0.48 g/cm3;
True density: 7.81 g/cm3
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nano-Fe2O3-2N5 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Fe2O3, alpha) Purity: 99.5% APS: 30nm SSA: 20-60 m2/g;
Color: red brown;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 5.24 g/cm3
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nano-Fe2O3-2N5 Iron Oxide Nanopowder (gamma Fe2O3) Purity: 99.5% APS: 20nm SSA: 40-80 m2/g;
Color: red brown;
Morphology: spherical;
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nano-Fe3O4-2N5 Iron Oxide Nanopowder (Fe3O4) Purity: 99.5% APS: 20nm Color: black ;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.85 g/cm3;
True density: 4.8-5.1 g/cm3
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nano-Gd2O3-3N Gadolinium Oxide Nanopowder (Gd2O3) Purity: 99.9% (REO) APS: 30nm SSA: 10-50 m2/g;
Color: White;
Bulk density: < 0.2 g/cm3;
True density: 7.407 g/cm3
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nano-HfO2-4N Hafnium Oxide Nanoparticles (HfO2) Purity: 99.99% (REO) APS: 100nm Color: white ;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
Density (g/cm3): 9.7;
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nano-La2O3-4N Lanthanum Oxide Nanopowder (La2O3) Purity: 99.99% (REO) APS: 30-50nm Color: White ;
Bulk density: < 0.2 g/cm3;
True density: 6.51 g/cm3.
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nano-MgO-3N Magnesium Oxide Nanopowder (MgO) Purity: 99.9% APS: 30-50nm SSA: >60 m2/g;
Color: white;
Morphology: polyhedral;
Bulk density: 0.145 g/cm3;
True density: 3.58 g/m3
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nano-Mg(OH)2-2N Magnesium hydroxide Nanoparticles Mg(OH)2 Purity: 99% APS: 30-50nm SSA: >90 m2/g;
Color: white;
Bulk density: ~0.23g/cm3 ;
True density: 2.36 g/cm3
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nano-MoO3-3N Molybdenum Trioxide Nanopowder (MoO3) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50-80nm Color: white-light gray with shaped like talcum powder; Ask for a Quotation
nano-Mn2O3-2N5 Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles (Mn2O3) Purity: 99.5% APS: 50nm SSA: 150m2/g;
Color: Dark Brown;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.35 g/cm3;
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nano-Nd2O3-3N Neodymium Oxide Nanoparticles (Nd2O3) Purity: 99.9% (REO) APS: 40nm (XRD) SSA: 30-50 m2/g;
Color: pale violet;
Bulk density: < 0.21g/cm3;
True density: 7.24g/cm3
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nano-NiO-2N5 Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles (NiO) Purity: 99.5% APS: 30nm SSA: 50-100 m2/g;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.8 g/cm3;
True density: 6.67 g/cm3
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nano-Ni(OH)2-2N5 Nickel(II) hydroxide Nanopowder / Nanoparticles Ni(OH)2 Purity: 99.5% APS: 20nm SSA: 50-85m2/g;
Color: Green;
Bulk density: 1.00 g/cm3;
True density: 4.15g/cm3
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nano-Pr6O11-3N Praseodymium Oxide Nanoparticles (Pr6O11) Purity: 99.9% (REO) APS: 15-55nm (RXD) SSA: 30-50 m2/g;
Bulk density: < 0.21 g/cm3;
True density: 6.5 g/cm3
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nano-SiO2-3N Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles(SiO2, amorphous) Purity: 99.9% APS: 30nm SSA: 440m2/g;
Color: white;
Morphology: ~spherical;
Bulk density: 0.063g/cm3;
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nano-Sm2O3-3N5 Samarium Oxide Nanoparticles (Sm2O3) Purity: 99.95% (REO) APS: 40nm SSA: 30-50 m2/g;
Color: paleyellow;
Bulk density: < 0.2g/cm3;
True density: 8.347g/cm3
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nano-SnO2-2N5 Tin Oxide Nanoparticles (SnO2) Purity: 99.5% APS: 50nm SSA: 18.55 m2/g ;
Color: white;
Bulk density: 0.55 g/cm3;
True density: 6.95 g/cm3
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nano-TiO2-2N Titanium Oxide Nanopowder (TiO2, anatase) Purity: 99+% APS: 20-30nm SSA: 200-240 m2/g;
Color: white;
Bulk density: 0.24 g/cm3;
True density: 3.9 g/cm3
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nano-TiO2-3N Titanium Oxide Nanopowder (TiO2, rutile) Purity: 99.9% APS: <5nm SSA: ~35-60m2/g;
Color: white;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 4.23 g/cm3
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nano-TiO2-2N Titanium Oxide Nanopowder (TiO2, rutile) Purity: 99+% APS: 30nm SSA: ~35-60m2/g;
Color: white;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 4.23 g/cm3
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nano-WO3-3N Tungsten Oxide Nanopowder (WO3) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50nm morphology: Nearly spherical;
Bulk density: 1.3-1.6 g/cm3;
True density: 7.16 g/cm3
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nano-Y2O3-4N Yttrium Oxide Nanopowder (Y2O3) Purity: 99.99% (REO) APS: 30-50nm SSA: 25-45 m2/g;
Color: white ;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 0.31 g/cm3;
True density: 5.01 g/cm3
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nano-ZnO-3N Zinc Oxide Nanopowder (ZnO) Purity: 99.9% APS: 80-100nm SSA: 4.8-6.8 m2/g;
Color: milky white;
Morphology: Irregular;
Bulk density: 0.28-0.48 g/cm3;
True density: 5.606 g/cm3
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nano-ZrO2-2N8 Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder, ZrO2 Purity: 99.8% APS: 30-50nm SSA: 20-40m2/g;
Color: white;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 5.89 g/cm3
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nano-YSZ-3N Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder (ZrO2 + 8% mol Y2O3) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 40nm SSA: >=25m2/g: ;
Morphology: Spherical;
True density: 5.88-5.91 g/cm3
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nano-YSZ-3N Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder (ZrO2 + 3% mol Y2O3) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 40nm SSA: 10-25m2/g: ;
Morphology: Spherical;
True density: 5.88-5.91 g/cm3
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nano-ATO-3N5 Antimony Tin Oxide Nanoparticles SnO2: Sb2O3=90: 10 (ATO) Purity: 99.95+% APS: 40nm SSA: >95 m2/g;
Color: Light Blue;
Bulk density: ??0.95 g/cm3;
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nano-AZO-4N Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Doped with 2wt% Aluminum Oxide (AZO) Purity: 99.99+% APS: 30nm SSA: 65 m2/g;
Color: White;
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nano-BaFe12O19-2N5 Barium Hexaferrite Nanopowder (BaFe12O19) Purity: 99.5% APS: 500nm morphology: polyhedral;
True density: 5.4 g/cm3
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nano-BaTiO3-3N Barium Titanate Nanoparticles (BaTiO3, Cubic) Purity: 99.9% APS: 100nm (from SEM) SSA: 10.42 m2/g (BET);
Color: white;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 5.85 g/cm3
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nano-CaCO3-3N Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles (CaCO3, Cubic) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50-80nm (from SEM) SSA: 10.42 m2/g (BET);
Color: white;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 2.711g/cm3
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nano-CoFe2O4-2N Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) Purity: 99.9% APS: 40nm Color: black;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: ~5.3 g/cm3
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nano-MnFe2O4-2N Manganese Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) Purity: 99% APS: 40nm morphology: spherical; Ask for a Quotation
nano-NiFe2O4-2N Nickel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) Purity: 99% APS: 30nm SSA: 65m2/g;
Color: brown;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 0.87-0.90 g/cm3;
True density: 5.368 g/cm3
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nano-NiCoFeOX-2N Nickel Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2O4) Purity: 99% APS: 40nm morphology: nearly spherical; Ask for a Quotation
nano-SrFe12O19-2N5 Strontium Iron Oxide Nanopowder (SrFe12O19) Purity: 99.5% APS: 60nm SSA: 28m2/g;
Morphology: polyhedral;
Bulk density: 0.40-0.53 g/cm3;
True density: ~5.3 g/cm3
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nano-Ti(OH)2-3N Titanium hydroxide Nanopowder, Ti(OH)2-Hydrophilic Purity: 99.9% APS: 100nm SSA: ~50 m2/g;
Color: white;
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nano-ZnFe2O4-2N Zinc Iron Oxide Nanopowder (ZnFe2O4)(Contains 5-10wt% ZnO, 10-15wt% Fe2O3) Purity: 99% APS: 30nm Color: brown;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.50 g/cm3;
True density: ~5.1 g/cm3
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nano-ZnCoFeOX-2N Zinc Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Zn0.5 Co0.5 Fe2O4) Purity: 99% APS: 40nm Color: dark brown;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.40 g/cm3;
True density: ~5.2 g/cm3
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nano-ZnMnFeOX-2N Zinc Manganese Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Zn0.5 Mn0.5 Fe2O4) Purity: 99% APS: 40nm Ask for a Quotation
nano-ZnNiFeOX-2N Zinc Nickel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4) Purity: 99% APS: 30nm Color: dark brown;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.80 g/cm3;
True density: ~5.2 g/cm3
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nano-InSnOX-4N Indium Tin Oxide Nanopowder(In2O3: SnO2=90wt%: 10wt%) Purity: >99.99%-Tested by ICP??AES method APS: 20-30nm-Tested by Nitrogen adsorption (BET); TEM observation (TEM) SSA: 35 m2/g;
Color: yellowish green ;
Morphology: irregular;
Bulk density: ~0.83 g/cm3;
True density: 7.14 g/cm3
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Nano Non-Oxide Powders:

Under Construction

Item No. Product Name Purity APS Other Properties US$
NI13N-2N Nano Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Purity: 99% Particle size: < 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 78
Phase:   Hexagonal
Color:  Off-white
Morphology: Nearly Spherical
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CB14N-2NB Nano Silicon Carbide (β-SiC) Purity: 99% Particle size: < 50nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 90
Phase:   Cubic
Color:  Green
Morphology: Nearly Spherical
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NI14N-2NA Nano alpha Silicon Nitride (α-Si3N4) Purity: 99% Particle size: 100/800nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 45
Phase:   Hexagonal
Color:  Light Brown
Morphology: Needle
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NI14N-2NM Nano Amorphous Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Purity: 99% Particle size: 20nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 115
Phase:   Amorphous
Color:  White
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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CB22N-2N Nano Titanium Carbide (TiC) Purity: 99% Particle size: 20nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 120
Phase:   Cubic
Color:  Black
Morphology: Nearly spherical
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NI22N-2N Nano Titanium Nitride (TiN) Purity: 97%, O < 1.0% Particle size: < 14nm Specific surface area (m2/g) > 80
Phase:   FCC
Color:  Black
Morphology:  spherical
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nano-AlN-3N Aluminum Nitride Nanopowder (AlN, hexagonal) Purity: 99.9% APS: 30-50nm Color: gray;
bulk density: 0.05g/cm3;
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nano-BN-3N Boron Nitride Nanoparticles (BN, hexagonal) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50nm true density: 2.29 g/cm3 Ask for a Quotation
nano-Cr3C2-3N Chromium Carbide Nanoparticles (Cr3C2) Purity: 99.9% APS: 30-120nm SSA: 50m2/g;
Color: Gray;
bulk density: 2.75 g/cm3;
Density: 6.68 g/cm3;
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nano-HfC-3N Hafnium Carbide Powder -HfC Powder Purity: 99.9% APS: 800nm Color: Gray; Ask for a Quotation
nano-LaF3-4N Lanthanum Trifluoride Nanopowder (LaF3) Purity: >99.99% APS: 20-60nm Ask for a Quotation
nano-SiC-3N Silicon Carbide Nanopowder (SiC, Beta) Purity: 99.9% APS: 40nm SSA: 40-80 m2/g;
Color: Grayish white;
Morphology: cubic;
Bulk density: 0.05 g/cm3;
True density: 3.216 g/cm3
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nano-Si3N4-2N Silicon Nitride Nanoparticles (Si3N4, amorphous) Purity: 99+% APS: 15-30nm SSA: 50-120 m2/g;
Color: White;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 0.05 g/cm3;
True density: 3.4 g/cm3
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nano-TaC-3N Tantalum Carbide Nanopowder (TaC) Purity: 99.9% APS: 100nm SSA: 15m2/g;
Bulk density: 2.5g/cm3;
True density: 13.9 g/cm3
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nano-TiC-3N Titanium Carbide Nanoparticles (TiC) Purity: 99.9% APS: 40-60nm SSA: >50 m2/g;
Color: black;
Morphology: nearly spherical;
Bulk density: ~0.08 g/cm3;
True density: 4.93 g/cm3
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nano-TiN-3N Titanium Nitride Nanopowder (TiN) Purity: 99.9% APS: 20nm SSA: 50-80 m2/g;
Color: Black;
Bulk density: 0.08 g/cm3;
True density: 5.22 g/cm3
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nano-VC-3N Vanadium Carbide Nanopowder (VC) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50nm SSA: 10m2/g;
Color: Gray;
Bulk density: 2.6g/cm3;
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nano-WC-3N Tungsten carbide Nanoparticles (WC) Purity: 99.9% APS: 60nm Color: Grey Black;
True density: 15.63 g/cm3
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nano-ZrC-3N Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles (ZrC) Purity: 99.9% APS: 50nm SSA: 20-70 m2/g;
Color: black;
Bulk density (g/cm3): 0.08;
True density: 6.7 g/cm3
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Nano Metal Powders:

Under Construction

Item No. Product Name Purity APS Other Properties US$
Ag
AMCN01
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.95% APS: 80-500 nm SSA: 1.5-5 m2/g
Morphology: ~ spherical
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Ag
AMCN02
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99+% APS: 90-210 nm SSA: 2.40 - 4.42 m2/g
Morphology: spherical
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Ag
AMCN03
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.9% APS: 30-50 nm (TEM) SSA: 5-10 m2/g
Morphology: spherical
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Ag
AMCN04
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.95% APS: 1.5-2.5 um SSA: 0.4-0.8 m2/g
Morphology: ~ spherical
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Ag
AMCN05
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.95% APS: 0.6-1.6 um SSA: 0.6-1.2 m2/g
Morphology: ~ spherical
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Ag
AMCN06
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 30-50 nm (TEM) SSA: 5-10 m2/g
Morphology: spherical
Surface coated with 2%wt oleic acid [formula: C18H34O2, structure: CH3(Ch2)7CH=CH(Ch2)7COOH )]
for better dispersion in certain applications
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Ag
AMCN07
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.95% Thickness: 80-500 nm
Length & width: 8-10 um
SSA: 0.6-1.2 m2/g
Morphology: flaky
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Ag
AMCN08
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.95% Thickness: 80-500 nm
Length & width: 5-8 um
SSA: 0.7-1.3 m2/g
Morphology: flaky
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Ag
AMCN09
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.95% Thickness: 80-500 nm
Length & width: 2-4 um
SSA: 0.8-1.5 m2/g
Morphology: flaky
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Ag
AMCN10
7440-22-4
Silver (Ag) Purity: 99.5% APS: thickness: ~20 - 80nm width: ~(0.6-1.2) um
length: ~(0.6-1.2) um
SSA: 3 m2/g
Color: pale gray
Morphology: flaky
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Al
AMCN11
7429-90-5
UN1396
Aluminum (Al) 99+% (metal basis) APS: 80 nm SSA: 12.1 m2/g
Particle Morphology: spherical
Color: gray
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Al
AMCN12
7429-90-5
UN1396
Aluminum (Al) Purity: 99+% (metal basis, O<10%) APS: 18 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Al
AMCN13
7429-90-5
UN1396
Aluminum (Al) Purity: 99+% (metal basis, O < 15%) APS: 18 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Au
AMCN14
7440-57-5
Gold (Au) Purity: 99.99+% APS: 50 - 100 nm from SEM picture, hard aggregates. SSA: 3.3 m2/g
Color: brown
Morphology: spherical
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C
AMCN15
7440-44-0
Diamond Black powder Purity: 52-85% APS: 4-25 nm SSA: 360-420 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical & flaky
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C
AMCN16
7440-44-0
Diamond Purity: > 95% APS: 3.2 nm SSA: 278-335 m2/g
Color: gray
Morphology: spherical
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C
AMCN17
7440-44-0
Diamond Purity: > 97% APS: 3 - 6 nm, Max<10nm SSA: 200 - 450 m2/g
Color: gray
Morphology: spherical
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C
AMCN18
7440-44-0
Graphite powder Purity: 99.9% (metal base) D5: 400nm, D50: 450 nm, D100: 1um Impurities: quartz + mica < 0.1%,
SSA: not measured,
Particle morphology: flaky
Color: black
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Co
AMCN19
7440-48-4
UN3089
Cobalt (Co) Purity: 99.8% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 28 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Co
AMCN20
7440-48-4
UN3089
Cobalt (Co), passivated Purity: 99.8% (metal basis, O < 15%) APS: 28 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Co
AMCN21
7440-48-4
UN3089
Cobalt (Co, carbon coated) Purity: 99.8% APS: 20 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
Bulk density: 0.08 - 0.20 g/cm3
True density: 8.92 g/cm3
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Cu
AMCN22
7440-50-8
UN3089
Copper (Cu) Purity: 99.8% (metal basis) APS: 78 nm SSA: 8.46 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
True density: 8.94 g/cm3
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Cu
AMCN23
7440-50-8
UN3089
Copper (Cu) Purity: 99.8% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 25 nm SSA: 30 - 50 m2/g
Color: black brown
Morphology: spherical
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Cu
AMCN24
7440-50-8
UN3089
Copper (Cu), passivated Purity: 99.8% (metal basis, O < 15%) APS: 25 nm SSA: 30 - 50 m2/g
Color: black brown
Morphology: spherical
Ask for a Quotation
Cu
AMCN25
7440-50-8
UN3089
Copper (Cu, carbon coated) Purity: 99.8% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 25 nm SSA: 30 - 50 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
Ask for a Quotation
Fe
AMCN26
7439-89-6UN3089
Iron (Fe) Purity: 99.6% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 25 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Fe
AMCN27
7439-89-6
UN3089
Iron (Fe), passivated Purity: 99.6% (metal basis, O < 15%) APS: 25 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Fe
AMCN28
7439-89-6
UN3089
Iron (Fe, carbon coated) Purity: 99.6% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 25 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
Ask for a Quotation
Mo
AMCN29
7439-98-7
UN3089
Molybdenum (Mo) Purity: 99.5% (metal basis) APS: 85 nm SSA: 4.4 m2/g
Color: black
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Ni
AMCN30
7440-02-0
UN3089
Nickel (Ni) Purity: 99+% (metal basis) APS: 62 nm SSA: 6.2 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Ni
AMCN31
7440-02-0
UN3089
Nickel (Ni) Purity: 99.9+% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 20 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Ni
AMCN32
7440-02-0
UN3089
Nickel (Ni), passivated Purity: 99.9+% (metal basis, O < 15%) APS: 20 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Ni
AMCN33
7440-02-0
UN3089
Nickel (Ni, carbon coated) Purity: 99.9+% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 20 nm SSA: 40 - 60 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Si
AMCN34
7440-21-3
UN3089
Silicon (Si) Purity: > 98% APS: 50 -100 nm SSA: 30-50 m2/g
Color: brown yellow
Morphology: spherical
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Si
AMCN35
7440-21-3
UN3089
Silicon (Si) Purity: > 98% APS: 30 - 50 nm SSA: 70-80 m2/g
Color: brown yellow
Morphology: spherical
True density: 2.33 g/cm3
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Ti
AMCN36
7440-32-6
UN2546
Titanium (Ti) Purity: 99% APS: 600 nm (<~1um) SSA: 2.1 m2/g
Color: black gray
Morphology: spherical
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Ti
AMCN37
7440-32-6
UN2546
Titanium (Ti) Purity: 99% APS: 65 nm (max < 120nm) SSA: 18.6 m2/g
Color: black
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W
AMCN38
7440-33-7
UN3089
Tungsten (W) Purity: 99.5% APS: 65 nm SSA: 4.2 m2/g
Color: black
Morphology: spherical
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Zn
AMCN39
7440-66-6
UN1436
Zinc (Zn) Purity: 99.5% APS: 130 nm SSA: 6.4 m2/g
Color: gray
Morphology: spherical
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Zn
AMCN40
7440-66-6
UN1436
Zinc (Zn) Purity: 99.9+% (metal basis, O < 10%) APS: 35 nm SSA: 30 - 50 m2/g
Color: black gray
Morphology: faceted
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nano-Ag-4N Silver Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Ag) Purity: 99.99% APS: 30-50nm SSA: ~16-20 m2/g;
Color: black;
True density: 10.5 g/cm3
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nano-Al-3N Aluminum Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Al) Purity: >99.9% metals basis APS: 50nm SSA: 30-50 m2/g;
Color: black ;
Morphology: spherical ;
Bulk density: 0.19 g/cm3;
True density: 2.7 g/cm3
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nano-Au-4N Gold Nanoparticles (Au) Purity: >99.99% APS: 50-100nm SSA: 3.394 m2/g ;
Color: Dark Brown;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: ~1.25 g/cm3;
True density: 19.32 g/cm3
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nano-B-2N5 Boron Nanoparticles (B) Purity: 99.5% APS: 500nm Color: Brown-Black; Ask for a Quotation
nano-Bi-3N Bismuth Nanoparticles (Bi) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 50nm SSA: 15-30 m2/g;
Morphology: spherical;
Ask for a Quotation
nano-C-3N Graphite Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Natural graphite, hydrophobic) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 400nm-1.2um Color: black;
Morphology: flaky;
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nano-C-3N Carbon Black Nanopowder Purity: 99.9% APS: 30-50nm Color: Black ;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 0.38g/ml
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nano-Co-3N Cobalt Nanoparticles / Nanoparticles (Co) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 50nm SSA: 40-60 m2/g;
Color: black;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 0.10-0.25 g/cm3;
True density: 8.92 g/cm3
Ask for a Quotation
nano-Cr-3N Chromium Nanoparticles (Cr) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 60nm SSA: 20-30 m2/g;
Color: black;
Bulk density: ~0.13 g/cm3;
True density: 8.9 g/cm3
Ask for a Quotation
nano-Cu-3N Copper Nanoparticles (Cu) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 50nm SSA: ~10-14 m2/g;
Color: Saddle brown;
Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 0.21 g/cm3 ;
True density: 8.9 g/cm3
Ask for a Quotation
nano-Fe-3N Iron Nanoparticles / Nanopowder (Fe) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 40nm SSA: 8-14 m2/g;
Color: black ;
Morphology: spherical ;
Bulk density: 0.45 g/cm3;
True density: 7.90 g/cm3
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nano-Mo-3N Molybdenum Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Mo) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 50-80nm SSA: 20-30 m2/g;
Color: Black ;
Morphology: spherical ;
Bulk density: 0.22-0.27 g/cm3;
True density: 10.2 g/cm3
Ask for a Quotation
nano-Mg-3N Magnesium MicroPowder (Mg) Purity: 99.9+% (metal basis) APS: < 38um Morphology: spherical;
Bulk density: 1.738 g/cm³ at 20??C;
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nano-Ni-3N Nickel Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Ni) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 50nm SSA: 12-16 m2/g;
Color: black;
Morphology: spherical ;
True density: 8.9 g/cm3
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nano-Si-3N Silicon Nanopowder Crystal (Si) Polycrystalline Purity: 99.9% APS: 30-50nm SSA: 45-80 m2/g;
Color: Yellow Brown ;
Bulk density: 0.08g/cm3 ;
True density: 2.33 g/cm3
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nano-Sn-3N Tin Nanopowder / Nanoparticles(Sn) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 60nm SSA: ~25m2/g;
Color: black;
Morphology: spherical;
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nano-Ta-3N Tantalum Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Ta) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 50-80nm Color: black;
Morphology: spherical ;
True density: 16.7 g/cm3
Ask for a Quotation
nano-Ti-3N Titanium Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Ti) Purity: 99.9% (metal basis) APS: 50nm SSA: 50 m2/g;
Morphology: spherical;
True density: 4.506 g/cm3
Ask for a Quotation
nano-W-3N5 Tungsten Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (W) Purity: 99.95+% (metal basis) APS: 50-80nm SSA: ~25 m2/g;
Color: black ;
Morphology: spherical ;
Bulk density: ~3.5 g/cm3;
True density: 19.3 g/cm3
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nano-Zn-3N Zinc Nanopowder / Nanoparticles (Zn) Purity: >99.9% (metal basis) APS: 60-80nm SSA: ~35-50 m2/g;
Color: black;
Morphology: spherical ;
Bulk density: 0.2-0.4 g/cm3;
True density: 7.14 g/cm3
Ask for a Quotation

General Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs, DWNTs, MWNTs):

Item No. Description

Carbon Nanotubes

SWNT-1211 Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)
Purity of CNTs: > 90%, Content of SWNTs: > 60%
Ash: < 3%
Average Diameter: 1.1 nm, Length: 10-20 µm
SSA: > 400 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long bundled tubes
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
SWNT-1212 Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)
Purity of CNTs: > 95%, Content of SWNTs: > 90%
Ash: < 1.2%
Average Diameter: 1.1 nm, Length: 10-20 µm
SSA: > 400 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long bundled tubes
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
DWNT-1261 Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs)
Purity of CNTs: > 95%, Content of DWNTs: > 50%
OD: 1.3-5 nm, Length: 5-15 µm
SSA: > 400 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long bundled tubes
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-1201 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: < 8 nm, ID: 2-5 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
SSA: > 500 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-1202 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: < 8 nm, ID: 2-5 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
SSA: > 500 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-1203 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: 10-20 nm, ID: 5-10 nm, Length: 20-40 µm
SSA: > 200 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic.
MWNT-1204 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: 10-30 nm, ID: 4-10 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
SSA: > 200 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-1205 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: 20-30 nm, ID: 5-10 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
SSA: > 50 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-1206 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: 20-40 nm, ID: 5-10 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
SSA: > 50 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
 
MWNT-1207 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: 30-50 nm, ID: 5-10 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
SSA: > 60 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-1208 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), 95+%
OD: > 50 nm, ID: 5-15 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
SSA: > 40 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic

Functional (-OH, -COOH) Carbon Nanotubes

SWNT-OH-1213 Single-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH
Purity of CNTs: > 90%, Content of SWNTs: > 60%, Ash: < 3%
Average Diameter: 1.1 nm, Length: 10-20 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 400 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long bundled tubes
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
SWNT-COOH-1214 Single-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH
Purity of CNTs: > 90%, Content of SWNTs: > 60%, Ash: < 3%
Average Diameter: 1.1 nm, Length: 10-20 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 400 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long bundled tubes
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-OH-1221 Multi-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH, > 95%
OD: £8 nm, ID: 2-5 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 500 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-OH-1222 Multi-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH, > 95%
OD: 8 -15nm, ID: 3-5 nm, Length: 30-50 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 233 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-OH-1223 Multi-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH, > 95%
OD: 10 -20nm, ID: 5-10 nm, Length: 20-40 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 200 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-OH-1224 Multi-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH, > 95%
OD: 10 -30nm, ID: 4-10 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 200 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-OH-1225 Multi-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH, > 95%
OD: 20 -30nm, ID: 5-10 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 50 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic
MWNT-OH-1226 Multi-walled carbon Nanotube with-OH, > 95%
OD: 20 -30nm, ID: 5-10 nm, Length: 20-30 µm
Content of -OH (hydroxyl): 2~7%
SSA: > 50 m2/g
Particle Morphology: long tube
Crystallographic Structure: cylindrical graphitic

Nanomaterials: It's a Small, Small World

(Released February 2002)
by Kathleen Hickman

Over the past decade, nanomaterials have been the subject of enormous interest. These materials, notable for their extremely small feature size, have the potential for wide-ranging industrial, biomedical, and electronic applications. As a result of recent improvement in technologies to see and manipulate these materials, the nanomaterials field has seen a huge increase in funding from private enterprises and government, and academic researchers within the field have formed many partnerships.

Nanomaterials can be metals, ceramics, polymeric materials, or composite materials. Their defining characteristic is a very small feature size in the range of 1-100 nanometers (nm). The unit of nanometer derives its prefix nano from a Greek word meaning dwarf or extremely small. One nanometer spans 3-5 atoms lined up in a row. By comparison, the diameter of a human hair is about 5 orders of magnitude larger than a nanoscale particle. Nanomaterials are not simply another step in miniaturization, but a different arena entirely; the nanoworld lies midway between the scale of atomic and quantum phenomena, and the scale of bulk materials. At the nanomaterial level, some material properties are affected by the laws of atomic physics, rather than behaving as traditional bulk materials do.

Although widespread interest in nanomaterials is recent, the concept was raised over 40 years ago. Physicist Richard Feynman delivered a talk in 1959 entitled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom", in which he commented that there were no fundamental physical reasons that materials could not be fabricated by maneuvering individual atoms. Nanomaterials have actually been produced and used by humans for hundreds of years - the beautiful ruby red color of some glass is due to gold nanoparticles trapped in the glass matrix. The decorative glaze known as luster, found on some medieval pottery, contains metallic spherical nanoparticles dispersed in a complex way in the glaze, which give rise to its special optical properties. The techniques used to produce these materials were considered trade secrets at the time, and are not wholly understood even now.

Development of nanotechnology has been spurred by refinement of tools to see the nanoworld, such as more sophisticated electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. By 1990, scientists at IBM had managed to position individual xenon atoms on a nickel surface to spell out the company logo, using scanning tunneling microscopy probes, as a demonstration of the extraordinary new technology being developed. In the mid-1980s a new class of material - hollow carbon spheres - was discovered. These spheres were called buckyballs or fullerenes, in honor of architect and futurist Buckminster Fuller, who designed a geodesic dome with geometry similar to that found on the molecular level in fullerenes. The C60 (60 carbon atoms chemically bonded together in a ball-shaped molecule) buckyballs inspired research that led to fabrication of carbon nanofibers, with diameters under 100 nm. In 1991 S. Iijima of NEC in Japan reported the first observation of carbon nanotubes1, which are now produced by a number of companies in commercial quantities. The world market for nanocomposites (one of many types of nanomaterials) grew to millions of pounds by 1999 and is still growing fast.

The variety of nanomaterials is great, and their range of properties and possible applications appear to be enormous, from extraordinarily tiny electronic devices, including miniature batteries, to biomedical uses, and as packaging films, superabsorbants, components of armor, and parts of automobiles. General Motors claims to have the first vehicle to use the materials for exterior automotive applications, in running boards on its mid-size vans. Editors of the journal Science profiled work that resulted in molecular-sized electronic circuits as the most important scientific development in 20012. It is clear that researchers are merely on the threshold of understanding and development, and that a great deal of fundamental work remains to be done.

What makes these nanomaterials so different and so intriguing? Their extremely small feature size is of the same scale as the critical size for physical phenomena - for example, the radius of the tip of a crack in a material may be in the range 1-100 nm. The way a crack grows in a larger-scale, bulk material is likely to be different from crack propagation in a nanomaterial where crack and particle size are comparable. Fundamental electronic, magnetic, optical, chemical, and biological processes are also different at this level. Where proteins are 10-1000 nm in size, and cell walls 1-100 nm thick, their behavior on encountering a nanomaterial may be quite different from that seen in relation to larger-scale materials. Nanocapsules and nanodevices may present new possibilities for drug delivery, gene therapy, and medical diagnostics.

Surfaces and interfaces are also important in explaining nanomaterial behavior. In bulk materials, only a relatively small percentage of atoms will be at or near a surface or interface (like a crystal grain boundary). In nanomaterials, the small feature size ensures that many atoms, perhaps half or more in some cases, will be near interfaces. Surface properties such as energy levels, electronic structure, and reactivity can be quite different from interior states, and give rise to quite different material properties.

Let us examine in particular nanocomposites based on polymeric materials, keeping in mind that this is but one small division of nanomaterials. There are several varieties of polymeric nanocomposites, but the most commercially advanced are those that involve dispersion of small amounts of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Those most humble of materials, clays, have been found to impart amazing properties. For example, adding such small amounts as 2% by volume of silicate nanoparticles to a polyimide resin increases the strength by 100%. One should keep in mind, of course, that 2% by volume of very small particles is a great many reinforcing particles. Addition of nanoparticles not only improves the mechanical properties, but also has been shown to improve thermal stability, in some cases allowing use of polymer-matrix nanocomposites an additional 100 degrees Centigrade above the normal service conditions. Decrease in material flammability has also been studied, an especially important property for transportation applications where choice of material is influenced by safety concerns. Clay/polymer nanocomposites have been considered as matrix materials for fiber-based composites destined for aerospace components. Aircraft and spacecraft components require lightweight materials with high strength and stiffness, among other qualities. Nanocomposites, with their superior thermal resistance, are also attractive for such applications as housings for electronics.

Others have examined the electrical properties of nanocomposites, with an eye to developing new conductive materials. The use of polymer-based nanocomposites has been expanded to anti-corrosion coatings on metals, and thin-film sensors. Their photoluminescence and other optical properties are being explored. Polymer-matrix nanocomposites can also be used to package films, an application which exploits their superior barrier properties and low permeability.

Although some nanomaterials require rather exotic approaches to synthesis and processing, many polymer-matrix nanocomposites can be prepared quite readily. Clay/polymer nanocomposites have been made by subjecting a clay such as montmorillonite to ion exchange or other pretreatment, then mixing the particles with polymer melts. There are also a number of other ways to fabricate the materials, including reactive processes involving in situ polymerization. The low volume fraction of reinforcement particles allows the use of well-established and well-understood processing methods, such as extrusion and injection molding. Ease of processing and forming may be one explanation for the rapidly expanding applications of the materials. Automotive companies, in particular, have quickly adopted nanocomposites in large scale applications, including structural parts of vehicles.

The most energetic research probably concerns carbon nanotubes. Nanoparticles of carbon - rods, fibers, tubes with single walls or double walls, open or closed ends, and straight or spiral forms - have been synthesized in the past 10 years. There is good reason to devote so much effort to them: carbon nanotubes have been shown to have unique properties, stiffness and strength higher than any other material, for example, as well as extraordinary electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes are reported to be thermally stable in vacuum up to 2800 degrees Centigrade, to have a capacity to carry an electric current a thousand times better than copper wires, and to have twice the thermal conductivity of diamond (which is also a form of carbon). Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing particles in nanocomposites, but also have many other potential applications. They could be the basis for a new era of electronic devices smaller and more powerful than any previously envisioned. Nanocomputers based on carbon nanotubes have already been demonstrated.

It is not so amazing, then, that government bodies, companies, and university researchers are joining forces or competing to synthesize, investigate, produce, and apply these amazing nanomaterials.